Civil engineering structure requires huge investment to develop, create and maintain in good service condition. Cement, steel, river sand and the crushed granite are most widely used building materials. Of these materials, cement and steel place huge energy demand for their production. Besides, their production generates considerable CO2 emissions. The availability of river sand and crushed granite as concrete aggregates are also limited. Therefore, it is essential to identify either alternate materials or alternate methods of producing these conventional raw materials. Thus, the global warming, increased concentration of green-house gases in the atmosphere, depletion of natural resources, extreme weather events, etc. have profound impact on civil engineering structure thereby seriously affecting the quality of life. Hence, engineering of cement-replacement materials, industrial waste and by-products, waste materials of construction for cost-effective, environment-friendly, innovative and sustainable construction materials can contribute to better quality of life for the mankind. Toward this there is a need to understand the microstructure of these new materials and evaluate its short-term and long-term mechanical and durability characteristics under real exposure conditions. Use of these engineered materials for components would result in sustainable structures.